Rocky Mountain ElkPhoto by UDWR

 Click here Elk Biology & Ecology from UDWR (PDF)

In 1971, the Rocky Mountain elk was voted Utah’s state mammal. This title was given to the elk in recognition of its recreational, economic and intrinsic value to the people of Utah.

Rocky Mountain ElkRocky Mountain elk can be found throughout Utah in mountainous habitat. During the hot summer months, elk live fairly high in the mountains, usually between 6,000 and 10,000 feet. In late fall, most elk migrate down the mountain slopes to areas of lower elevation and less snowfall. During the winter, elk congregate in valley bottoms and forage on south-facing slopes where the sun melts snow more quickly and winds prevent deep snow from accumulating. These conditions provide elk access to more food sources.

Winter habitat for elk is referred to as winter range. The availability of winter range is critical to the survival of all big game species. Adult bulls 700 lbs.- 5 feet at the shoulder. Cows 500 pounds- 4 1/2 feet at the shoulder.

Mature bulls have large sets of antlers, usually with six points, called tines, on each side. Cows do not grow antlers. Young bulls are sometimes called “Spikes” because of their straight antlers.

Both males and females have a light-brown body, dark brown head, neck and legs and characteristic cream- colored rump.

  • Elk droppings are bigger and longer than deer droppings.
  • Bulls will often, but not always leave their droppings in a pile. Cow elk often spread them while walking.
  • A mature bull elk track is larger, and wider.
  • Cow elk tracks are more slender and pointed than a big bull’s.
  • Tracks are about 4 ½ to 5 inches long.
  • Elk will also scrape or strip bark off of trees.

Elk Scat Elk Track

Elk Bugle

  • Elk are most active at dusk and dawn.
  • Cows, calves and yearlings live in loose herds or groups. Females typically give birth to one, (sometimes two) calves in the late spring.
  • During most of the year, bulls live in bachelor groups or alone.

The elk mating season, called the rut, begins in early September. During the rut, cows and calves form harems with one or two mature bulls. During this time, males emit loud vocalizations, called bugles. Males can be more aggressive during the rut.

Elk calves are born in the months of May and June.

Elk Elk

Keep Your Distance

If you encounter an elk, stay calm.

  • Give the elk a lot of space.
  • Agitated elk hold their heads high, lay their ears back and flare their nostrils, and sometimes even stomp their front hooves.
  • Do not feed elk.

If you find an elk calf:

  • If you find an elk calf, the best thing to do is keep your distance and leave the animal right where you found it.
  • Because a calf doesn’t have a scent and it’s camouflaged so well, hiding the calf for its first few weeks of life is the best way he mother can protect it from predators.
  • The calf’s mother will usually move away from the calf to feed and rest, but she will still remain close by.
  • Do not approach! If you get too close, the scent you leave could draw a predator to the animal.

Utah Division of Wildlife Resources Wildlife Notebook Series No. 12